For those wishing to embark on a similar journey:
A Goodreads shelf with picks for each country, and an invaluable resource in my own search.
A metafilter thread with many suggestions for each country. My own starting point.
Another thread with more suggestions and ideas.
A World of Books 2000 - "some of the most important and interesting books recently published abroad that an American public may have overlooked." Ordered by country.
Blog post with suggestions specifically for South East Asian countries.
A non-exhaustive list of Arabic literature that has been translated into English. Prose and poetry.
Amazon - You can't go far wrong.
And more generally:
The Bittern - Thoughts on fantasy writing.
Awaiting an Epiphany - My girlfriend's blog, and home of her zine of the same name.
Goodreads - My Goodreads profile, with reviews, ratings, etc.
Twitter - My Twitter account, used erratically and haphazardly.